25. March 2017 13:23
The knee joint is one of the largest in the body, comprising of three bones - femur, tibia and the kneecap (patella). The kneecap fits into a groove like cavity in front of the femur called the trochlea. All these bones have a protective tissue lining around their surface to reduce friction between them. The quadriceps tendon that lies near the patella connects the quadriceps muscle to the tibia. In normal joints, the patella is placed in the center of the trochlea but in some people it is pulled to one side of the groove and does not slide within the cavity as the leg moves. This is known as Patellar Subluxation or Kneecap Instability. The condition is caused due to the following reasons:
- The trochlea groove is inherently narrow or shallow and the kneecap bone is unable to fit into it
- The pelvis is broader than normal
- Abnormal gait stresses the knee joint and the patella tends to shift from its normal position
- A fall on the knee may damage the knee cap alignment
- A direct hit to the joint
- Vehicular accidents
- Discomfort while moving the joint
- Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome- pain on the sides of the knee during movement
- Inability to bear body weight
- The knee buckles when the patient tries to move or stand
- A feeling of locking or catching
- A popping or cracking sound is heard or felt when the knee moves
- Inflammation around the joint
- Thorough clinical examination of the affected joint to assess the severity of the condition
- X-ray imaging to check if the patella has been dislocated
- Analysis of the patient’s symptoms, medical history, gait etc.
- MRI or CT scan to check for tendon or cartilage damage
- The orthopedic doctor may suggest certain exercises to strengthen the quadriceps, hip abductors and hamstring muscles
- Bracing may be used to keep the joint stable and provide relief from the symptoms
- Taping may provide support to the joint while moving
- The patient may be recommended to wear special footwear that supports the legs and improve the gait
- Manual reduction of the patella may be done
- Recurrent incidences of dislocations need to be treated with arthroscopic surgery
- Physical therapy may be recommended to improve functionality and enable the person to return back to his/her normal activities
- Surgery may help to release the pressure from the tight tendons or ligaments that may be pulling the kneecap out of its place
For comprehensive treatment of Kneecap Instability, consult the doctors at OrthoTexas. The Frisco, TX based knee specialists specialize in treating a wide range of orthopedic conditions. To request an appointment, feel free to call at (214) 436 - 8997.
6. January 2017 12:31
Spinal Instability or Lumbar Instability is a condition that occurs when the inter-vertebral discs in the spine begin to degenerate. The bulge of the disc decreases and begins to lose height. This causes the vertebrae to displace from their anatomical position and override the disc. It eventually produces friction between the vertebrae, causing pain and several other symptoms. The micro movement within the spine irritates the nerves that emerge out of the joint spaces. The condition may increase the risk of Spinal Arthritis and development of bone spurs. Spinal Instability may also affect the ability of the spine to maintain the body’s structure and movement.
- External trauma or fracture of the spine
- Metastatic tumors in the spine
- Degenerative Disc Disease
- Congenital defects in the spinal cord
- Disorders of the connective tissues
- Poor lifting techniques
- Severe pain in the back while lifting objects, bending and straightening the spine
- A feeling of locking in between a physical activity such as getting up from a chair
- Muscle spasms
- Pain may radiate down into the legs and buttocks, generally affecting one side of the body
- Numbness in the lower extremities and arms
- The symptoms may get aggravated after prolonged sitting or standing
- Laughing, coughing or sneezing may also induce pain
- Details of the patient’s medical history and lifestyle may be noted down
- MRI and CT scan Severe pain in the back while lifting objects, bending and straightening the spine
- X-ray imaging (in a sitting and standing position) may be required to study the changes in the bone structure
- The doctor may probe the spine to recreate conditions that are likely to cause pain. This helps to diagnose the pattern of pain and the movements that cause it.
- Physical therapy may be effective in treating mild Spinal Instability as it focuses on strengthening the muscles in the spine.
- Pain killers and anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed by the doctor.
- Microdiscectomy- Surgical removal of the intervertebral disc that is impinging on the spinal nerve.
- Spinal Fusion- Two or more spinal vertebrae are fused together to prevent any movement between them and improve the stability of the spine.
For treatment of Spinal Instability and other orthopedic conditions, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the spine surgeons in Frisco, you can call at (214) 618-5502 or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Suite 180, Frisco, TX 75034.
27. December 2016 10:30
Quadriceps tendon refers to the band of tissues that allow the four quadriceps femoris muscles (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius) to converge above the patella. This tendon, in association with the quadriceps muscles, enables the extension of the knee joint. Excessive stretching and tearing of this tendon is referred to as the Quadriceps Tendon Rupture. The condition most commonly affects people above the age of 40 years. The rupture is generally preceded by the degeneration of the structure due to other factors. This injury may result in physical disabilities and in some cases a part of the patella also breaks along with the tendon attached to it.
- The predisposing factors that may cause Quadriceps Tendon Rupture are as follows
- Medical conditions like Obesity, Diabetes, Gout, Renal failure, Hyperparathyroidism etc.
- Prolonged immobilization of the lower extremities
- Falling on a flexed knee
- Direct trauma to the kneecap during sports or vehicular accident
- Overuse injuries due to excessive jumping or running
- Inflammation of the quadriceps tendon
- Severe Pain
- Swelling and tenderness
- The joint becomes unstable and the patient may fall or stumble while walking
- A popping sensation at the time of injury
- The pain increases with physical activity
- Change in color of the skin around the knee
- the orthopedic doctor may peform thorough clinical evaluation of the injured leg
- The patient’s medical history, mode of injury and lifestyle details may be taken into consideration
- X-ray imaging may help to reveal the bone structure and fractures if any
- MRI and CT scan may help to evaluate the extent of damage to the soft tissue structures
- The range of motion may be analyzed
Partial tears can be treated through conservative methods while the complete tears require surgical treatment. These may include the following procedures.
- The knee may be immobilized for a period of 3-5 weeks
- Physical therapy may be recommended to improve range of motion
- Exercises focused on strengthening the hamstring muscles must be performed
- Lifestyle modifications may be recommended
- Rest the injured leg by keeping it elevated at chest level
- Compression may be done using soft bandage
- Use of ice packs during the first 24-72 hours of injury may be helpful
- Plasma injections that have a rich platelet count may promote healing of the tendon
- Wires, screws and pins may be used to secure the tendon in place
To know more about the treatment options available for Quadriceps Tendon Rupture, consult the surgeons at OrthoTexas. For an appointment, visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Suite 180, Frisco, TX 75034 or call at (214) 618-5502.
21. November 2016 12:36
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment, also known as the Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, refers to a medical condition in which the ulnar nerve gets irritated or trapped. It is one of the three main nerves in the human arm that originates near the neck and runs down the entire length of the arm to the hand. The nerve provides sensation to the ring and the little finger besides enabling the arm muscles to form a grip. It may get compressed along this path, most commonly it happens at the collar bone, elbow joint or the wrist. The condition should be addressed with timely medical care as it may lead to muscle atrophy and physical disabilities.
- Formation of bone spurs along the path of the ulnar nerve
- Arthritis of the elbow joint
- Past instances of bone fractures or dislocations in the arm, hand, wrist or collar bone
- Repeated and excessive bending or flexing of the elbow joint may put the ulnar nerve out of place
- A direct hit or injury to the elbow joint
- Accumulation of joint fluid in the elbow may compress the nerve
- Bending the elbow or leaning on it for long can result in nerve entrapment. This happens because the ulnar nerve passes over the small bony ridge called medial epicondyle when the elbow is bent. Repeated activity may irritate it
- Some people have inherent structural problems which may make the ulnar nerve slide out of the cubital tunnel every time the elbow is bent.
- Prolonged resting of the elbow on the armrest of the chair
- Numbness in the hand, little finger and ring finger
- A tingling sensation may occur sporadically in the fingers and hand
- Flexing the fingers may become difficult
- Loss of grip or ability to hold objects
- The fingers may go numb or ‘fall sleep’ when the elbow is bent for a short stretch of time
- Details of the patient’s symptoms, past injuries, lifestyle, occupational requirements, may be noted
- Physical tests may be conducted to check the level of strength and flexibility in the hand or wrist
- The elbow may be bent to check if the nerve moves out of its place
- X-ray imaging of the elbow, hand and wrist joint to assess the bone structure
- Nerve conduction tests may be carried out by stimulating the ulnar nerve at a particular point and recording its response. This helps to determine damage to nerve and muscles
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory medicines to eliminate swelling in soft tissues around the nerve
- A soft padded elbow brace or splint can be worn at night to keep the arm straight while sleeping
- Specific exercises may be performed to guide the ulnar nerve to slide through the cubital tunnel when the elbow is bent
- Surgical treatment may be required if the patient does not show improvement with conservative methods. These may include the following:
- Cubital Tunnel Release- Surgical cutting of the ligament within the cubital canal to make more space for the ulnar nerve
- Ulnar Nerve Anterior Transposition- In this, the ulnar nerve is relocated from its original position to the front side of the forearm. This prevents it from sliding out of its position when the joint is moved
- Physical therapy may be recommended post-surgery to prevent stiffness in the arm
For treatment of Ulnar Nerve Entrapment and other wrist conditions, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic doctors in in Frisco, TX, call at (214) 436-8997.
7. November 2016 05:28
Transient Synovitis, Toxic Synovitis or Irritable Hip is a medical condition observed in children between 3-8 years that causes pain in the hip joint followed by limping. The underlying cause is the inflammation in the lining of the synovial joint. Although the condition is usually transitory, it may lead to Osteoarthritis in the later stages of life or may recur in case the child acquires infection.
- The hip lining may be affected following a viral infection, usually of the upper respiratory system
- A fall or an injury to the hip joint
- Reaction or after effects of certain medicines or vaccines may cause inflammation
- Pain in the hip, legs, thigh, groin and knee
- Change in gait as the child tends to develop a limp
- Infants may find it difficult to crawl
- The condition mostly affects one side of the hip
- The pain may develop as a mild ache and progress slowly to be severe. In other cases, there may be a sudden onset of severe hip pain
- Resting in a certain position may become particularly painful
- A catching or locking sensation may be experienced while walking
- Weight bearing may become difficult for some patients
- Some children may also have low grade fever
- Detailed physical examination of the joint to check for movements that cause pain
- Palpation may be done to check if the hip is tender
- A complete detailed examination of the muscuo-skeletal system of the body to check if there is inflammation in other joints
- Log Roll- This test is done by making the patient lie in a supine position and then roll from one side to the other
- Urine analysis
- Blood tests to check for white blood cell count
- X-ray examination of the hip joint
- Ultrasound or MRI may be conducted to check the condition of the soft tissue structures
- A sample of the synovial fluid may be drawn through aspiration and tested in a laboratory
- Bone scan may be required in some cases
- Pain killers and anti inflammatory medicines may be prescribed to relieve the symptoms
- Heat therapy may be used to provide relief
- Bed rest for 7 to 10 days or till complete recovery may be recommended
- Physical activities like sports that pressurize the hip joint should be avoided to allow complete recovery.
For complete diagnosis and treatment of Transient Synovitis, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic doctors in Allen, TX, call at (972) 727 – 9995.
22. August 2016 13:28
Cervical Spondylosis is the medical term for Arthritis of the neck. It is a degenerative disorder that affects the vertebrae and discs in the cervical spine. With age, the fluid between the vertebrae tend to dry up, which causes the discs to shrink and become stiff. This, in turn, exerts pressure on the entire spinal cord as the bones start rubbing against each other, leading to Cervical Spondylosis. The cartilage within the joints is also destroyed and the joint spaces are considerably reduced. The condition mainly affects the people between the age group of 40-65 years.
- Natural wear and tear of the neck bones due to ageing
- Direct injury to the spine due to a fall, vehicle accident or playing sports
- Herniated Disc
- Development of bone spurs which eventually press upon the nerve endings
- Hereditary factors
- Excessive weight
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Poor posture that strains the neck for long time
- Pain in the neck and shoulders
- Stiffness in upper part of the body
- Muscle spasms
- Sensation of needle pricks in the neck, arms, hands etc.
- Pain may radiate to the back, hips and legs
- Problem in reflexes
- Change in gait or lack of balance while walking
- Bladder incontinence
- Weakness in arms
- Standing, coughing or sneezing may aggravate the pain
- Inability to grasp objects or holding on to them
- Discomfort while lifting the arms
- A thorough physical examination of the neck and spine
- Range of motion, reflexes and coordination may be tested by making the patient move the neck in different directions
- X-ray imaging may be done by the doctor to analyze bone structure
- MRI and CT scan may reveal pinched nerves, bone growths, ligament and other soft tissue injuries
- The patient’s symptoms, previous medical records and family history may be analyzed
- Nerve function tests and electromyogram may be conducted in some cases
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory medicines and muscle relaxants
- The spine specialist may recommend injecting steroids into the affected part to relieve inflammation
- Manual neck traction may increase space between the collapsed joints
- Physical therapy may help to strengthen muscles in the back, shoulder and neck
- Surgical removal of bone spurs to reduce pressure on the nerves and vertebrae
- Surgery may also be recommended for patients with Herniated Disc. The surgeon may remove the affected disc to create more space within the spine
OrthoTexas provides comprehensive treatment for Cervical Spondylosis and other spine conditions. To schedule an appointment with the spine surgeons in Frisco, you can call at (214) 618 – 5502 or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Frisco, TX 75034.
21. June 2016 08:09
Spinal Arthritis is a progressive disorder that gradually damages the facet joints, wears out the intervertebral discs and consequently affects other parts of the spine as well. It leads to the hardening of the vertebrae and hampers an individual’s ability to bend, move or twist. The condition most commonly affects the lower back as it bears the maximum body weight.
- Direct injury or trauma to the spine
- A spine surgery
- Age related wear and tear of the cartilage between the vertebrae
- Calcium deficiency
- Use of corticosteroid injections
- Post-menopausal changes
- Genetic disposition
- Infection in the spine
- Congenital defects in bone structure
- Vehicular accidents
- Pain in the back, hips, thighs which may aggravate after physical activity
- Limited range of motion
- Weakness in the legs, feet and arms
- Tenderness and warmth
- Abnormal curving of the back
- Physical examination
- Analysis of the patient’s medical and genetic history
- X-ray imaging
- MRI and CT scan to check for soft tissue, cartilage, tendon and nerve damage
- Blood test may be done to check for infections
- The patient may be asked to perform some exercises to assess the range of motion
- Bone scan may be required
- Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce pressure on the spine
- Avoiding alcohol and smoking may prevent further degeneration of bones
- Avoiding any activity which may cause discomfort and increase pain
- Exercising to strengthen core muscles which support the spine and improve flexibility
- Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed
- Application of ice packs or heat pads
- Nutritional supplements to combat calcium deficiency
- Physical therapy
- Orthotic devices may be prescribed to provide support to the back
- Surgical intervention may be required for chronic or severe cases of Spinal Arthritis the following procedures may be recommended.
- Arthrodesis- Surgical fusion of the vertebrae
- Surgical replacement of the damaged disc using artificial implants
- Removal of bone spurs
- Surgical decompression of nerves in the spine
- Discectomy- Disc debris and bulges may be removed using minimally invasive techniques
The spine specialists at OrthoTexas provide comprehensive treatment for Spinal Arthritis. Patients in Frisco, TX can call at (214) 618 – 5502 to schedule an appointment or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Frisco, TX 75034.
9. June 2016 09:21
Aquatic therapy, also known as hydrotherapy, is a technique which involves a set of exercises and movements performed in a pool, preferably heated, to provide relief from certain physical disorders and ailments. An aquatic therapy session may last up to 30-40 minutes depending upon patient‘s medical needs and physical abilities.
Aquatic therapy is helpful in treating the following conditions:
- Neuromuscular and skeletal disorders
- Pain and inflammation
- Balance and gait problems
- Postural deficits
- Orthopedic conditions such as Arthritis, back pain, spinal injury etc.
- Sore or sprained muscles
Benefits of aquatic therapy
- Improves blood flow within the body besides preventing pooling of blood in the extremities
- Improves cardiovascular functioning
- Improves posture and stability of the trunk or the lumbar region
- The hydrostatic pressure of the water slightly compress the skin, muscles and joints, which in turn aides blood circulation as well as helps to decrease swelling in the lower extremities.
- The viscosity of water helps improve muscle tone and strength
- The respiratory system and supporting muscles become stronger as exercising in water requires a lot of exhalations
- Water offers a comfortable and therapeutic medium for exercise to those who find it difficult to work out on hard surfaces
- Aquatic therapy is an excellent form of resistance exercise, without the use of any weight training equipment. The patient is required to exert more pressure to perform a specific movement, which helps to tone the muscles without causing any pain.
- The joints are much less pressurized during the therapy. The increased blood flow prevents the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles, thus avoiding fatigue and cramping. The therapy also prevents overuse injuries by reducing the level of stress on muscles, cartilage, or connective tissue.
- Enhances flexibility
- The patient can exercise comfortably for a longer duration as the buoyancy of the water reduces physical stress and the effect of gravity
- Boosts the confidence of the patient as he/she feels less pain and stress while exercising and the range of motion is improved manifold
The physical therapists at OrthoTexas specialize in providing aquatic therapy to boost recovery from various orthopedic illnesses and injuries. They offer customized rehabilitation programs help patients regain their previous range of motion and prevent further injuries. Patients in Frisco can call at (214) 436 - 8997 to schedule an appointment or visit 2601 Avenue of the Stars, Suite 300, Frisco, TX 75034.
8. February 2016 06:13
The shoulder joint is an important upper body joint comprising of the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (shoulder blade). It is further divided into two main joints:
- Glenohumeral Joint- The upper part of the humerus is rounded and fits into the cavity of the scapula called glenoid, which forms the glenohumeral joint.
- Acromioclavicular Joint- This joint is located near the point where the clavicle comes in contact with the tip of the shoulder blade.
Shoulder Arthritis can affect any one of the above mentioned joints and restrict the mobility of the joint.
The condition can be of the following types:
- Rheumatoid Arthritis- It causes swelling of the lubricating tissues (synovium) which may hamper the movement of the joint. It may affects both the shoulders at the same time
- Osteoarthritis- The condition affects the AC joint and is commonly associated with the gradual wear and tear of the protective cartilage around the bones
- Avascular Necrosis- Disruption of the blood supply to the humerus may damage the cells and eventually propagate the onset of Arthritis
- Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy- Injury to the rotator cuff prevents it from keeping the humerus within the glenoid socket. This may lead to bone damage and Arthritis
- Posttraumatic Arthritis- It develops as a result of an injury or trauma to the shoulder joint
- Wear and tear of the shoulder joint
- Trauma or injury
- Sickle cell disease, fractures in the shoulder bones, alcohol consumption or Shoulder Dislocation
- Autoimmune disorders that may damage the tissues, bones, cartilage and ligaments
- Pain, stiffness and swelling
- Inability or difficulty moving the shoulders, neck and upper arm
- Pain may intensify with weather change
- Discomfort while sleeping
- Grating sensation while moving the joint
- The orthopedic doctor may analyze the symptoms, range of motion besides checking the joint for swelling, tenderness or bruises
- Evaluation of the patient’s medical history and genetic ailments, if any
- X-ray imaging, MRI scans
- Rest and avoiding any activity that may aggravate the pain
- Apply ice packs at regular intervals for a few days to relieve inflammation
- Anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers may be prescribed
- Injecting corticosteroids into the joint
- Physical therapy may help to strengthen the joint and supporting muscles
- Arthroscopy may be used to remove debris from the affected joint
- Joint replacement surgery may be required in case of severe damage to the shoulder joint
For diagnosis and treatment of Shoulder Arthritis, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Frisco, TX, you can call at (214) 618 – 5502 or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Suite 180, Frisco, TX 75034.
5. January 2016 12:22
Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome affects the ulnar nerve located between the little finger and the wrist. It is one of the three main nerves that extend downwards from the neck to the arms, hand and the little finger. It ensures sensation in the forearm, palm and the fourth and fifth fingers of the hand. This nerve is in fact a part of the brachial plexus and can be constricted at any point in the arm or the hand resulting in pain. Overuse of the hand may subject this nerve to excessive pressure resulting in pain, weakness and/or other types of discomfort. The condition is also known as Guyon’s Canal Syndrome as the ulnar nerve passes from the wrist to the little finger through the Guyon canal. This syndrome commonly affects cyclists whose hands tend to get pressed against the handle bars resulting in ulnar nerve compression.
- Compression of the ulnar nerve
- Overuse of the hand
- The tissues near the ulnar nerve become swollen or thickened
- Injury to the elbow, hand or wrist
- Fractures or trauma
- Development of a ganglion (hard bump) on a tendon which can pressurize the ulnar nerve
- Nerve entrapment near the elbow or wrist joint
- Presence of cysts/Arthritis or bone spurs near the elbow joint
- Repetitive flexing or bending movement of the elbow
- Leaning on the elbow for long duration may pressurize this nerve
- Previous dislocations may result in nerve entrapment
- Pain in the little finger or middle finger or both
- Feeling of needle pricks in the finger
- Numbness, weakness or tingling sensation
- Loss of motor function of the hand muscles
- Loss of gripping capacity of the hand
- Intrinsic muscle wasting may occur in some cases
- A detailed physical examination by the orthopedic doctor which would include a variety of physical tests to assess the range of motion of the hand/wrist/elbow
- Analysis of the patient’s medical history
- Conducting EMG (electromyography) to check nerve transmissions in the hand
- X-rays can help detect bone spurs, Arthritis or displacements
- Providing adequate rest to the affected hand and finger. The elbow should be kept straight most of the time
- Application of ice packs at regular intervals
- Use of splint, particularly at night, to provide support to the finger/hand or the elbow
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs or pain killers
- Physical therapy can help restore muscle strength and functioning
- Surgical treatment to relieve pressure on the ulnar nerve
- Use of specific gloves to prevent pressure on the nerve
The orthopedic surgeons at OrthoTexas provide effective treatment for Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome. To schedule an appointment, you can call at (214) 618-5502 or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Frisco, TX 75034.