25. February 2017 02:28
A fluid filled cyst or small sac that forms behind the knee joint is referred to as the Baker’s Cyst. It is also named as Popliteal Cyst. This condition occurs when the joint functioning is hampered due to an internal cause such as damage to the soft tissue structures, Arthritis etc. Such conditions provoke excessive synovial fluid development within the joint which tends to get stored in a soft tissue sac resulting in the formation of a cyst. In normal conditions, the synovial fluid helps to reduce friction between the constituent bones and makes it feasible for us to flex, rotate and move the legs and the knee. However, excessive build up can cause some discomfort which may require immediate medical attention.
- Knee injury may alter the flow and distribution of fluid in the joint
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Damage caused to the joint cartilage
- Pain while flexing the knee
- Tightness due to the fluid accumulation as the skin around the joint also stretches
- Swelling or inflammation at the back of the joint
- In case the fluid filled sac breaks and the fluid outflows into the lower leg, redness and inflammation may occur in the lower extremities
- Visibly prominent bulge behind the knee
- Some patients may feel as if water is running down their legs
- Inflammation in the calf area
- The affected joint and leg are observed in detail and the patient may be questioned about the symptoms, past injuries and the onset of the condition
- MRI test may be required for detailed view of the knee joint and the affected soft tissue structures
- X-ray imaging may be done
- Ultrasound testing may be suggested
- The cyst tends to dissolve on its own over the time in most cases. If the symptoms persist or get aggravated, the following methods may be adopted.
- Draining the excess fluid using a needle which is referred to as Needle Aspiration
- Ice therapy may provide relief
- Injecting steroids into the joint to reduce inflammation and pain
- The knee may be wrapped in a removable bandage for slight compression and support
- Weight bearing should be avoided for some time and use of crutches or a walker may be recommended
- Some pain killers and anti inflammatory medicines may be prescribed
- Maintaining a healthy body weight to avoid stressing the joint may be recommended
- Gentle exercises that promote range of motion may be incorporated in the daily schedule
- In case the underlying cause is a cartilage tear, surgery may be required to treat it
- Physical activity needs to be avoided for some time and the affected joint should be given adequate rest
For diagnosis and treatment of Baker’s Cyst, visit the knee surgeons at OrthoTexas. To request an appointment, you can call at (972) 727 - 9995.
14. January 2017 07:47
Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain is a medical condition that affects physically active teenagers. It is characterized by pain and discomfort in the area surrounding the kneecap. The knee is the largest and one of the most complex joints comprising of three bones, femur, tibia and patella. Various ligaments and tendons support these bones as well as hold them in place. Stress or damage to any of these parts can lead to Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain. The condition is more commonly seen in girls as compared to boys.
- Overuse of the joint
- Sudden change in the intensity and technique of physical activity
- Weak quadriceps or hamstring muscles
- Inherent defects in alignment of the kneecap, leg and hip joint
- Wearing ill-fitted shoes
- Incorrect exercise or sports technique
- Tight ligaments in the knee joint
- Dull and persistent ache that may increase following a physical activity or exercise
- Pain may also occur while resting
- Difficulty in squatting, climbing stairs, weight lifting and running
- Cracking or locking sensation around the knee joint while moving
- Discomfort while getting up after prolonged sitting
- Feeling of the joint being unstable
- Swelling around the kneecap
- Physical examination which may include palpation, observing the shape of the kneecap, tightness of the ligaments and other visible symptoms
- Range of motion tests may be done by asking the patient to perform some physical movements such as jumping, walking, bending, squatting etc.
- The patient’s medical history and lifestyle details may be taken into consideration by the knee specialist
- X-ray imaging may be conducted to assess the anatomical changes in the kneecap and other supporting structures
- MRI scan may help to diagnose damage to the soft tissues
Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain can be treated through conservative methods. Some of them are listed below:
- Use of comfortable shoes that provide adequate support to the feet and prevent stress to the knee joint
- The intensity and duration of physical activity must be reduced till the symptoms subside. Any exercise or sport that may lead to pain should be avoided
- Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed by the doctor to relieve pain
- Hamstring and quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises may be recommended to provide better support to the knee
- Application of ice packs at regular intervals may help to alleviate pain and swelling
- Orthotic devices such as shoe inserts or molded arch supports can be used to combat pain and discomfort
- Regular physical therapy sessions may help to enhance flexibility and range of motion
The orthopedic surgeons at OrthoTexas provide complete treatment for Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain. Patients in Allen, TX can call at (972) 727-9995 for appointment.
15. October 2016 04:18
Commonly known as Hunching Back or Dowager’s Hump, Kyphosis refers to the development of an abnormal outward curvature of the spine. A normal human spine has a slightly rounded structure but in some cases, the rounding may get exaggerated causing disfigurement and other spine related problems. Kyphosis may occur at any age irrespective of the gender. However, it mostly affects women in their post-menopausal stages as they lose bone mass rapidly. Break or compression of any part of the vertebrae alters the spinal curvature. This creates a visibly exaggerated curve or a hunch back.
- Congenital defects
- Spinal degeneration
- Neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy
- Diet lacking in Vitamin D and calcium leads to loss of bone mass
- Poor postural habits can cause Kyphosis
- Past injuries
- Scheuermann’s Disease that particularly affects adolescents may be a cause
- Decompressive spinal surgeries may lead to Iatrogenic Kyphosis
- An abnormally curved back is the most prominent symptom
- Stiffness and pain may be felt while performing daily routine tasks
- The patient is generally fatigued as the spine does not provide adequate support
- There may be visible loss of height
- The patient is unable to stand straight
- Some people develop breathing problem as the lungs may be constricted
- Altered gait
- There may be a loss of appetite as the abdominal cavity is affected and the organs are compressed
- X-ray imaging may be recommended to identify the exact location of damaged vertebrae
- Thorough clinical examination of the existing symptoms, past medical records and injuries if any
- MRI and CT scan may reveal soft tissue damage and the degenerated discs
- Pain killers, muscle relaxants and anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed
- A back brace may be recommended for additional support to the spine
- Physical therapy to strengthen the supporting muscles and improve posture as well as flexibility
- Spinal infections may require antibiotics
- Rest is highly recommended and the patient is advised to abstain from stressful activities
Surgical procedures may include the following:
- Osteotomy- Removal of degenerated vertebrae and discs
- Surgical decompression: This procedure is done to relieve the pressure on the nerves between the vertebrae that may have been pinched
- Spinal Fusion: Some vertebrae may be fused together to increase spinal stability. This may require fixation using metal screws and wires
- Balloon Kyphoplasty- A special balloon kind of instrument is used to inflate the collapsed vertebrae in case of compression fractures. This may help to regain the height of the spinal column
We at OrthoTexas provide complete diagnosis and treatment for Kyphosis. To schedule an appointment with the spine surgeons in Allen, call at (972) 727-9995.
13. September 2016 07:29
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS) is a medical condition which refers to the thickening of the synovial membrane. The membrane is a thin slippery layer of tissue that lines the cartilage and helps in lubrication as well as smooth movement of the joints. The condition causes the synovium to secrete extra fluids which eventually leads to swelling and hinders the movement of the joint. The overgrowth of the tissues forms a tumor but is not cancerous. PVNS may affect one or more joints of the body and is most commonly observed in knee, hip, elbow, ankle as well as shoulder. People in the age group of 30-40 years are more susceptible to the disorder.
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis can be classified into two categories:
- Localized- The tendons are affected by the growth of the tumor but it is localized to just one point within the joint
- Diffused- The tumor spreads through the entire joint and may cause severe damage
PVNS is largely attributed to genetic anomalies and no other cause of this disease has been established so far.
- Swelling in the joint
- Catching or locking of the joint when moved
- The joint may feel unstable and weak
- Loss of motion or functionality
- The symptoms may occur periodically
- X-ray imaging to check if the condition has cause damage to the bone
- Clinical examination of the symptoms, affected joint and range of motion
- Evaluation of patient’s medical and family history
- MRI scan may help to assess if the condition is localized or diffused as well as the severity of the thickened synovium
- Aspiration- Drainage of the fluid from the joint for clinical testing
- The doctor may extract a part of tissue from the tumor for biopsy
Most cases of Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis require surgical treatment. The following procedures may be recommended:
- Arthroscopy- A camera guided, minimally invasive procedure to remove the tumor
- Open surgery- An incision is made in the joint and the membrane is removed to prevent any damage to the joint. The procedure is mainly recommended for patients with diffused PVNS
- Combined arthroscopic and open surgery- If majority of the tumor mass is located at the back of the joint, it is removed through open surgery while the remaining part at the front is extracted by arthroscopy.
- Total replacement of the joint may be required in severe cases. In this, the orthopedic surgeon removes the damaged part of the joint and replaces it with artificial implants.
OrthoTexas provides complete diagnosis and treatment for Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis and other medical conditions. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
5. July 2016 10:56
Pes Anserine Bursitis, or Knee Tendon Bursitis, refers to an inflammation of the bursa on the inner side of the knee. The bursa is a lubricating sac located between the shinbone and hamstring tendons that prevents the two structures from rubbing against each other. The condition occurs when the bursa produces excess fluid and becomes inflamed, thereby placing pressure on the adjacent parts of the joint. Certain factors may increase a person’s susceptibility to develop Pes Anserine Bursitis. These are:
- Sports activities like running and swimming
- Old age
- Medical conditions such as Knee Osteoarthritis or Medial Meniscus Tear
- Improper training techniques
- Running uphill
- Sudden increase in running distance
- Tight hamstrings
- Trauma or contusion to the inner part of the knee
- Outward turning of the lower leg due to Flat Feet or Knock Knees
- Forceful twisting with the foot planted on the ground
- Repetitive activities
- Pain at the inner part of the knee
- Tenderness to touch
- Difficulty bending or straightening the knee
- Pain may increase while exercising, climbing stairs or any other stressful activity
- Limited range of motion
The orthopedic doctor may physically examine the knee and check for tightness in hamstring muscles. He may inquire about the patient’s medical history and nature of activities performed on a daily basis. An X-ray may be conducted to rule out a stress fracture. CT scan or MRI may be required to assess damage to the medial compartment of the knee. The doctor may take a sample of bursa fluid to be tested in case infection is suspected.
- Rest: The patient may be advised to take rest for a few days and avoid any activities that may aggravate the pain.
- Ice pack: Application of ice packs at frequent intervals may reduce swelling and stiffness.
- Medications: The orthopedic doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medications to provide relief from pain. Antibiotics may be prescribed in case of infection of septic bursitis.
- Injections: Injecting steroid mediations directly into the joint may be suggested in case of severe pain and swelling.
- Physical therapy: Performing light stretching exercises may help to release stiffness and strengthen the hamstring muscles.
- Surgery: In case the symptoms do not subside, the doctor may recommend surgical removal of the bursa.
- Lifestyle modification: Athletes may be suggested to reduce or alter their exercise programs to prevent the condition from recurring.
OrthoTexas provides complete diagnosis and treatment for Pes Anserine Bursitis. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995 or visit 1125 Raintree Circle, Suites 100/100A, Allen, TX 75013.
17. June 2016 07:37
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (OSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the knee joint that affects adolescents who actively participate in sports activities. The inflammation typically occurs at the point within the knee joint where the patellar tendon is attached to the shin bone. Adolescents experience growth spurts due to the development of tendons, bones, muscles and ligaments. Physical activity, such as running and jumping, further increases the pressure on the joints and leads to inflammation.
Growing children have special growth plates that are covered by the tibial tubercle, a bony structure, at the end of the shin bone. During a physical activity, this tibial tubercle gets pulled by the patellar tendon which may lead to inflammation of the growth plate and is termed as the Osgood-Schlatter Disease. The symptoms may occur in one or both the knees. The condition usually subsides once the growth phase is over and the growth plates solidify into bones.
- Overuse of the knee joint
- Sports activities
- Changing direction rapidly while running or jumping
- Direct injury to the knee
- Detachment of a piece of bone from the tibia due to the pull exerted by the ligaments
- Tight quadriceps or hamstring muscles
- Prominent outgrowth of the tibial tubercle in the form of a lump
- Tenderness in the knee joint
- Pain may get aggravated during physical activity
- Tightness in the thigh muscles
- Locking of the knee
- Inability to kneel down
- Clinical examination of the knee
- Evaluation of the child’s medical history and symptoms
- X-ray imaging may be conducted to rule out other possible causes of knee pain
- The patient may be asked to move the leg in different directions to assess the severity of problem
- Blood tests
- MRI scan to evaluate damage to soft tissues
- Bone scan may be recommended by the orthopedic doctor
- Rest with the leg elevated at chest level
- Limit physical activity until the symptoms subside
- Perform exercises to stretch to strengthen the quadriceps
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory medicines
- Use of patellar tendon strap
- Application of ice packs at regular intervals
- Wear protective gear during sports to prevent knee injury
- Compression with an elastic bandage
- Physical therapy may be helpful to restore the range of motion of the knee
- Surgery may be required if the problem does not subside even after the patient attains adulthood.
For diagnosis and treatment of Osgood-Schlatter Disease, consider OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the knee specialists in Allen, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
6. May 2016 08:56
Shoulder pain and injuries are common ailments that affect people irrespective of their age or gender. These problems are often caused by activities that involve repetitive use of the shoulder and arm. The shoulder joint is very important as it enables upper body movement and stabilizes the torso. Shoulder pain is often a result of damage to the tendons, muscles or ligaments in the joint.
- Sports injury
- Repeated overhead activities
- Day to day activities such as washing, cleaning windows, gardening etc
- Weight lifting
- Direct hit or trauma to the upper arm or shoulder
- Excessive exercising that involves repetitive arm movement
- A direct fall on an outstretched hand or shoulder
- Automobile accidents
- Pain which may get aggravated during activity
- Pain while sleeping on the affected shoulder
- Restricted range of motion
- Feeling that the shoulder may pop out
- Weakness in the arm and shoulder
- Inability to lift or stretch the arm
- Numbness or a feeling of warmth
- Avoid excessive use of the upper arm and shoulder joint
- Warm up properly before any physical activity
- Use shoulder pads and protective gear during sports
- Maintain a good posture to keep the shoulders stable and properly aligned
- A proper stretching routine or before exercise is essential to maintain flexibility and body alignment as well as prevent muscle cramps
- Specific exercises that strengthen the arm, wrist, neck and back muscles should be done regularly
- Wear the seat belt while driving
- Make sure you maintain proper body posture while lifting heavy weights
- Take frequent breaks between activities that involve overhead stretching of the arms such as painting
- Do not attempt to catch falling objects
- Sports persons should undergo proper training and conditioning programs to prevent injuries
- Avoid any activity at home or work place which causes discomfort
The shoulder surgeons at OrthoTexas provide effective treatment for a wide range of illnesses and injuries. Call at (972) 727 – 9995 to schedule an appointment with the orthopedic doctors in Allen, TX.
15. March 2016 08:47
The knee joint is the meeting point of the thigh bone (femur) and the lower leg bone (tibia). It is supported by muscles, tendons, ligaments as well as disc-shaped menisci. Since it bears maximum body weight and is put to constant use, it is prone to injury as well as wear and tear. Knee injuries may vary from a fracture, tendon or ligament tear, bone displacement or sprains and strains.
- Direct hit or trauma to the knee joint
- Sports injury
- Overuse of the joint
- A fall, jump or twist
- Arthritis or Osteoporosis
- Pain which can be mild to severe. It may tend to aggravate during or after an activity
- A popping sound or sensation may be heard or felt in the knee
- The joint may feel weak and loose
- Swelling, bruising, tenderness or redness
- Inability to bear body weight, stand, walk or bend
- Numbness in the joint
- Pricks and needles may be felt
- Visible deformity
- Orthopedic doctors recommend wearing knee straps or guards during sports or recreational activities to lend adequate support to the joint.
- Refrain from carrying excessive loads as it may stress the joint.
- Maintaining a healthy weight reduces the risk of developing Osteoarthritis which may weaken the knee joint and make it prone to injury.
- Adequate warming up before playing or exercising stretches the thigh muscles, prevents stressing of the tendons and reduces pressure on the knee joint.
- Wear shoes that enable proper alignment of the feet, knee joint and the legs during any activity.
- The intensity of workout whether at the gym or outdoors should be enhanced gradually to prevent injury to the knee joint
- Physical therapy helps to strengthen the knee joint and support muscles in case the person is already experiencing pain or discomfort in the joint
- Regular exercise and use of the joint helps to maintain its flexibility
- A diet rich in calcium helps to maintain bone strength and reduce the risk of a fracture
- Learn the right techniques and methods of playing a sport, exercising or using an equipment from a trainer before practicing them
For diagnosis and treatment of knee pain and injuries, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with our orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, call at (972) 727 – 9995 or visit 1125 Raintree Circle, Suites 100/100A, Allen, TX 75013.
19. February 2016 07:39
Elbow Bursitis or Olecranon Bursitis is a condition caused due to swelling of the bursa, a sac containing a limited amount of fluid that helps in movement of the elbow. The bursa is located between the tissues and the bones. When it gets inflamed, it leads to production of extra fluid making the elbow difficult to move. People involved in activities that require repeated leaning over elbow such as gardening, raking, carpentry, painting etc. are at a higher risk of developing the condition.
- Prolonged Pressure: Exerting pressure on the tip of the elbow for a long duration of time may lead to swelling of the bursa. Moreover leaning on hard surfaces such as tabletops, desks may also aggravate the condition.
- Infection: Elbow Injuries such as insect bite, scrape, wound can cause infection of the bursa.
- Medical Conditions: Conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, Thyroid, Osteoarthritis etc. may cause Elbow Bursitis.
- Sudden Fall: An accident or a fall on the elbow may cause inflammation of the bursa.
- Swelling at the tip of the elbow
- Pain at the back of elbow
- Limited range of motion
The doctor may physically examine the elbow and look for the symptoms. He may recommend certain imaging tests such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI or ultrasound to determine the severity of the condition. In some cases, blood tests may be done to identify the underlying cause of the condition.
- Compression: Using a splint or an elastic bandage may provide support to the elbow and reduce swelling. Wearing elbow pads may help to restrict the elbow’s movement.
- Medications: Taking anti-inflammatory medications with the prescription of the doctor may help in relieving pain.
- Rest: The doctor may suggest providing sufficient rest to the elbow. Activities that may exert pressure on the elbow must be avoided.
- Aspiration: In this procedure, the doctor will remove the extra fluid from the bursa with the help of a syringe.
- Icing And Heat Therapy: Ice packs may be applied on the affected area at frequent intervals to reduce swelling and pain. Heat therapy may also be beneficial in reducing discomfort.
- Elevation: It may be advisable to keep the affected elbow elevated above the level of heart to reduce inflammation.
- Physical Therapy: The orthopedic doctor may suggest some specific exercises to restore the flexibility and strength of the elbow joint.
- Surgery: When non-surgical treatments become ineffective, a surgery may be recommended.
The doctors at OrthoTexas offer comprehensive treatment of Elbow Bursitis and other medical conditons. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, call at (972) 727-9995.
29. January 2016 05:33
The forearm is primarily made up of two main bones- Ulna and the Radius. The radius lies towards the thumb while the ulna lies towards the side of the little finger. Growth plates or cartilage tissues are present near both the ends of the ulna as well as radius and these are the points where the bones grow till the child attains adulthood.
Forearm fracture is a common injury among children. Since the children are in a growing stage, their bones tend to heal faster as compared to adults. A forearm fracture can occur at the distal end near the wrist, in the middle or at the proximal end which lies near the elbow. However, it is imperative to seek immediate medical attention in case of a fracture so that it does not result in permanent disability. The time required for healing depends on the severity of the injury.
- A direct fall on an outstretched arm or hand
- A direct hit on the forearm
- Sports injury in children
- Activities such as tumbling, wrestling, jumping or skipping
- Pain which may get severe
- Inability to move the arm
- Numbness may be felt in the hand
- Bruise, swelling, redness may occur at the point of injury
- Visibly deformed forearm
- In case of severe injury bone/bone pieces may be seen pushing out of broken skin
- Detailed analysis of the time and cause of injury
- Physical examination of the arm, wrist, hand and elbow by the doctor
- X-ray imaging may be done to assess the severity of damage to the bones and surrounding tissues or ligaments
- Evaluation of the child’s medical history
- The doctor may also conduct tests to check nerve damage
- The orthopedic doctor may recommend the patient to put the injured forearm in a cast or sling for a specified period of time.
- Closed Reduction Technique, i.e. manual pushing of displaced bones by the doctor to return them to their normal position.
- Medicines may be prescribed to combat pain, inflammation and prevent infection if the skin is bruised or cut.
- Open Reduction Technique, a surgical procedure in which the skin is cut open and the bones are put back into position using screws, metal pins or implants.
- Physical therapy may be required in some cases to treat stiffness of joints after the arm is removed from the cast or splint.
We, at OrthoTexas, provide comprehensive treatment for forearm fracture. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, call at (972) 727 – 9995.