29. January 2016 05:33
The forearm is primarily made up of two main bones- Ulna and the Radius. The radius lies towards the thumb while the ulna lies towards the side of the little finger. Growth plates or cartilage tissues are present near both the ends of the ulna as well as radius and these are the points where the bones grow till the child attains adulthood.
Forearm fracture is a common injury among children. Since the children are in a growing stage, their bones tend to heal faster as compared to adults. A forearm fracture can occur at the distal end near the wrist, in the middle or at the proximal end which lies near the elbow. However, it is imperative to seek immediate medical attention in case of a fracture so that it does not result in permanent disability. The time required for healing depends on the severity of the injury.
- A direct fall on an outstretched arm or hand
- A direct hit on the forearm
- Sports injury in children
- Activities such as tumbling, wrestling, jumping or skipping
- Pain which may get severe
- Inability to move the arm
- Numbness may be felt in the hand
- Bruise, swelling, redness may occur at the point of injury
- Visibly deformed forearm
- In case of severe injury bone/bone pieces may be seen pushing out of broken skin
- Detailed analysis of the time and cause of injury
- Physical examination of the arm, wrist, hand and elbow by the doctor
- X-ray imaging may be done to assess the severity of damage to the bones and surrounding tissues or ligaments
- Evaluation of the child’s medical history
- The doctor may also conduct tests to check nerve damage
- The orthopedic doctor may recommend the patient to put the injured forearm in a cast or sling for a specified period of time.
- Closed Reduction Technique, i.e. manual pushing of displaced bones by the doctor to return them to their normal position.
- Medicines may be prescribed to combat pain, inflammation and prevent infection if the skin is bruised or cut.
- Open Reduction Technique, a surgical procedure in which the skin is cut open and the bones are put back into position using screws, metal pins or implants.
- Physical therapy may be required in some cases to treat stiffness of joints after the arm is removed from the cast or splint.
We, at OrthoTexas, provide comprehensive treatment for forearm fracture. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Allen, TX, call at (972) 727 – 9995.
27. January 2016 08:20
Iliotibial Band Syndrome is an injury caused due to overuse of the knee or thigh muscles. The Iliotibial band is a bunch of fibers which begin near the pelvis and joins the tibia after running along the outer side of the thighs. This band is also linked to the muscles of the buttock as well as hip joint and plays a major role in facilitating the movement of the knee. Inflammation of the Iliotibial band causes pain in the knee which may worsen if not treated immediately. The injury is commonly experienced by runners, tennis players, weight lifters and cyclists. Generally, a patient is able to restore normal range of motion using conservative methods of treatment.
- Excessive running
- Improper stretching before and after a running session
- Muscle imbalance
- Abnormality in limb length
- Supination or outward rolling of the foot during physical activity
- Presence of bowlegs (genu varum)
- Weak hip muscles
- Sitting cross legged or squatting for too long
- Abnormal tilting of the pelvic bones
- Pain in the knee which may radiate towards the thighs and hip joint
- Pain is felt when the foot touches the ground
- Difficulty in climbing stairs
- Swelling or tenderness may be observed
- Tenderness and stinging sensation
- Popping sound in the knee
- Detailed analysis of the symptoms reported by the patient as well as his/her medical history
- Physical examination to check limb length discrepancy, muscle weakness or tightening or swelling and tenderness in any part of the lower body
- Checking the functioning of the hips, lower back, legs and thighs
- Analysis of the patient’s gait and range of motion
- MRI scan may be required to assess the severity of inflammation in the Iliotibial band
- Cryotherapy – application of ice packs at regular intervals to reduce pain
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs by the doctor
- Physical therapy and specific stretching exercises may help to strengthen the supporting muscles and retain normal range of motion
- Electrotherapy may be used to reduce pain and inflammation
- Keeping the affected leg elevated
- Wearing specific shoe inserts or shoes
- Surgical lengthening of the Iliotibial band to prevent stretching
We, at OrthoTexas, provide complete treatment for Iliotibial Band Syndrome. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Flower Mound, TX, you can call at (972) 899 – 4679.
23. January 2016 07:07
Frozen Shoulder, or Adhesive Capsulitis, is a condition causing severe pain and stiffness in the shoulder. An injury, Diabetes, overuse or some other factors may lead to stiffening of tissues around the shoulder joint accompanied by formation of scar tissues which may lead to pain and restrict its movement.
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint in which the proximal humerus (rounded top of the arm bone) fits into a socket shaped scapula. In case of a Frozen Shoulder, the joint capsule thickens or swells, leading to restriction of motion of the bones. The condition is commonly observed in the people aged 40-60 years of age. The patient may take a year to recover from the effects of a Frozen Shoulder. There are three main stages of a Frozen Shoulder:
- Freezing Stage- The shoulder may feel stiff and pain increases with time. Movement is gradually restricted and the patient may experience maximum pain while sleeping
- Frozen Stage- The patient may feel pain as well as stiffness and motion is limited. The pain does not increase beyond this stage.
- Thawing Stage- Flexibility and range of motion may improve gradually as well as the pain may diminish.
- Direct injury or trauma to the shoulder
- Overuse of the upper arm or shoulder joint
- An after effect of menopause in women
- Health related issues such as Diabetes, Arthritis, Parkinson’s Disease, cardio-vascular problems or stroke
- Surgery or immobilization of the shoulder joint for a long period
- Fracture in the arm
- Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism
- Injury to the rotator cuff
- Pain that increases gradually
- Loss of motion in the shoulder
- Difficulty sleeping due to severe pain
- A detailed examination of range of motion and symptoms by an orthopedic doctor
- Evaluation of the patient’s medical history to assess the potential underlying cause
- The doctor may press the affected joint to check for swelling and also move it in different directions to analyze range of motion
- MRI and X-ray may be recommended to evaluate damage to the joint
- Application of alternate hot and cold packs to reduce pain as well as swelling
- Prescription of anti inflammatory drugs
- Practicing gentle stretching exercises to restore flexibility and motion
- Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, i.e. application of electric pads to numb the pain causing nerve endings in the spinal cord
- Manipulation in which the patient’s arm is moved in various directions under the effect of general anesthesia to loosen the tight muscles
- Arthroscopic surgery to remove scar tissue or release the tight tissues
- Joint Distension, which involves injection of sterile water into the joint to stretch the tissues
OrthoTexas provides complete diagnosis and treatment for Frozen Shoulder. To schedule an appointment with our orthopedic surgeons in McKinney, TX, you can call at (972) 727-9995.
20. January 2016 10:54
The knee is the largest joint and bears a major part of the total body weight. It is made up of four bones - tibia, femur, fibula and patella. Several ligaments and tendons hold these bones together as well as maintain the stability of the knee joint. Age related degeneration, injury or excessive stress to any of these structures can cause knee pain. The condition can affect almost anyone, but is more commonly seen among the elderly, overweight people or sportspersons involved in repetitive bending and squatting.
- Direct blow to the knee
- Muscle overuse
- Sprain or strain
- Sports related injuries
- Incorrect landing from a jump
- Excessive twisting of the leg
- Rapid change of direction with the foot planted on the ground
- Certain medical conditions, such as Arthritis, Tendonitis, Bursitis etc.
- Constant or intermittent pain in the knee joint
- Inflammation and stiffness
- Redness and warm sensation around the site of pain
- Tenderness to touch
- Bruises or visible deformity in the knee
- Difficulty walking
- Inability to straighten or bend the leg
- Grating sensation when trying to move the knee
- Pain may increase after physical activity or long periods of sitting and standing
- Feeling that the knee may give out
The orthopedic doctor may conduct a physical examination and inquire about the patient’s lifestyle as well as any previous knee injury. He may straighten or bend the leg to identify the exact location of pain. Certain imaging tests may be conducted to determine the cause and severity of the condition.
- RICE Therapy: The orthopedic doctor may ask the patient to take rest, apply ice pack to the site of pain, compress the knee with an elastic bandage and keep the leg elevated above heart level. RICE Therapy can help to reduce pain and inflammation in the knee joint.
- Medications: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed to offer relief from pain.
- Knee Braces: The patient may be advised to wear a knee brace or use crutches while walking to avoid putting stress on the joint.
- Physical Therapy: After the pain and swelling subside, physical therapy may be recommended to restore the mobility and strength of the knee. The therapist may suggest certain stretching and strengthening exercises to reinstate the joint’s previous functionality.
- Surgery: Surgical intervention may be required if knee pain is caused due to some underlying orthopedic condition.
We, at OrthoTexas, provide comprehensive treatment for knee pain and other orthopedic conditions. To schedule an appointment with our knee specialists in Carrollton, TX, call at (972) 492 – 1334 or visit 4780 North Josey Lane, Carrollton, TX 75010.
16. January 2016 13:16
Hamstring refers to a group of muscles located at the back of the thighs that enable the bending of the leg at the knee joint. Pulled Hamstring or straining of the hamstring muscles is a common injury borne by athletes, runners, basketball players, footballers, dancers, gymnasts and skaters.
There are three main muscles that constitute the hamstring; the biceps femoris semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus. These begin at the lower end of the pelvis and move down to the shin bone. Stretching and overuse of these muscles leads to pain which can be severe and may lead to tearing of the muscles. Mild hamstring pulls can heal on their own while severe tearing of the muscles require timely medical assistance. Hamstring Pulls can be graded as follows on the basis of their severity;
- Grade I- Mild pain and discomfort may be experienced by the patient but the mobility will be intact. There could be some swelling and resistance while bending the knee of performing other activities
- Grade II- The injured person may limp and experience swelling and pain particularly when the hamstring muscles are touched or when the knee is bent
- Grade III- It is categorized as a severe injury involving partial or complete tearing of the hamstring accompanied by sharp pain, swelling, bruising and weakness in the limbs.
- Jumping or activities that involve sudden starts or stops
- Inadequate or refraining from warm up exercise before an activity/sport
- Tight quadriceps in front of the thighs may exert pull on the hamstring muscles
- Presence of weak glutes (skeletal muscles in the buttock) may lead to straining of hamstrings
- Medical conditions which arise in pelvis and lower back may become a cause for hamstring stress
- Mild to severe pain depending on the severity of stretching/straining of the hamstring
- Difficulty in standing or walking around
- A feeling as if something has snapped/popped at the back of the thigh
- Pain may radiate up to the buttocks when moved
- Bruising, soreness and tenderness
The doctor may conduct a physical examination of the affected area besides analyzing the cause of injury. MRI may help to assess the exact damage caused to the hamstrings.
- Resting the injured leg and refraining from any activity that stresses the thigh muscles
- Use crutches if required to avoid putting weight on the leg
- Apply ice packs at regular intervals
- Soft elastic bandage/thigh support may be used for compression
- Keep the injured leg elevated and provide support by placing a pillow under it
- Pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs may help ease the pain
- Physical therapy under supervision helps strengthen the muscles and prevent repeated straining
- Surgery may be required in severe cases when the muscles are torn
For comprehensive treatment of Pulled Hamstring, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeons in Carrollton, TX, call at (972) 492 – 1334.
12. January 2016 05:56
A sprain refers to an injury of the ligaments or the connective tissues joining the bones. The human wrist consists of many ligaments that can be stretched or torn leading to a sprain. It may be a result of forceful bending of the wrist, a sudden fall on an outstretched hand or any day to day activity that might injure the joint. Such injuries are most commonly seen in sportspersons involved in skateboarding, gymnastics, basketball, skiing etc. Wrist sprains can be classified on the basis of severity of the injury as follows:
- Grade 1- involves mild stretching of the ligaments
- Grade 2- moderate injury which may lead to partial tearing of the ligaments and some loss of function
- Grade 3- severe injury which is accompanied by complete tearing and damage to the ligaments. The tear may involve breaking a part of the attached bone and is referred to as an avulsion fracture
In most cases, wrist sprain can be treated by conservative methods and the time required to recover may vary from two to ten weeks.
- A sudden fall on the hand that puts pressure on the forearm and the hand
- Twisting the wrist
- Direct trauma or hit to the wrist
- Swelling and tenderness at the point of injury
- Pain which can be mild to severe depending on the severity of the injury
- Pain worsens with movement
- A popping sound at the time of injury
- A sense of heat or warmth may spread across the injured wrist and arm
- Stiffness, redness, bruising
- Loss of function which can range from partial to complete
- The wrist joint feels loose
- Discoloration of the skin around the wrist
- Thorough physical examination by the orthopedic doctor
- Detailed analysis of the patient’s previous medical records and injuries to the wrist or hand
- Imaging tests such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI to determine the location and extent of damage that has occurred
- Arthrography test may be conducted for a better view of the ligaments
- Resting the injured wrist and arm on an elevated surface to reduce swelling and strain
- Applying ice packs at regular intervals for the first 48 hours of injury or as suggested by the physician
- Compression with an elastic bandage
- Pain killers and anti inflammatory drugs may be prescribed
- Immobilization of the wrist using a splint or a cast for about a week or more
- Physical therapy and suitable stretching exercises to regain mobility and strength
- Grade 3 injuries may require surgical intervention
- Arthroscopy which may involve surgically repairing the torn ligament
For treatment of wrist sprain and other orthopedic conditions, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the hand and wrist specialists in Frisco, TX, you can call at (214) 618 – 5502.
8. January 2016 11:10
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction is a condition that affects the ankle and the foot as a result of the tearing or inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon, which connects the calf muscles in the leg to the bones on the inner side of the foot. The tendon helps to keep the foot arch intact and provides stability while walking or movement. An injury to the tendon results in loss of stability and gradual development of a Flatfoot. This ailment is found to be more prevalent in women particularly after the age of 40.
- Injury to the leg or foot resulting in tearing or damage to the tendon
- Sudden fall
- Stress, hypertension, Diabetes and Obesity increase the chances of developing this problem
- Sports or high impact activities such as basketball, soccer or tennis may result in repetitive use and consequent tearing of the tendon
- Pain which can get worse with movement or any activity involving walking, running or even standing for long duration
- The patient may develop swelling near the arch of the foot
- Gradual collapse of foot arch
- The outer ankle bone will develop pain with the shifting of the heel bone
- Too many toes will be visible from the rear of the foot due to inward rolling of the ankle
- Change in foot shape
- Analysis of the patient’s medical history
- Assessment and investigation of the time and process of injury
- Conducting a flexibility test to check the range of motion
- Several imaging techniques may be applied such as X-rays, CT scan, MRI or Ultrasound to analyze the bone and tissue damage
- The orthopedic doctor may recommend the patient to rest the injured foot or leg and strict avoidance of activities that pressurize the foot
- Application of ice packs at regular intervals 3-4 times in a day helps reduce swelling
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs or pain killers
- Use of a cast or a special boot to immobilize the leg or to provide additional support to the tendon
- Orthotic devices such as a brace or a shoe insert may help alleviate symptoms of Flatfoot and provides adequate support to the patient
Surgical methods of treatment depend on the severity of the damage and location of the tendon. The following methods may be adopted:
- Damaged posterior tibial tendon may be removed and replaced by another tendon in the foot to restore function and stability
- Surgical removal of the inflamed tissues around the tendon
- Flatfoot can be treated by lengthening the calf muscles
- Osteotomy, i.e. surgical cutting of one or two bones to repair the Flatfoot and create a normal arch shape
For comprehensive treatment of Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction, visit OrthoTexas. To schedule an appointment with the foot and ankle specialists in Flower Mound, TX, call at (972) 899 – 4679.
5. January 2016 12:22
Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome affects the ulnar nerve located between the little finger and the wrist. It is one of the three main nerves that extend downwards from the neck to the arms, hand and the little finger. It ensures sensation in the forearm, palm and the fourth and fifth fingers of the hand. This nerve is in fact a part of the brachial plexus and can be constricted at any point in the arm or the hand resulting in pain. Overuse of the hand may subject this nerve to excessive pressure resulting in pain, weakness and/or other types of discomfort. The condition is also known as Guyon’s Canal Syndrome as the ulnar nerve passes from the wrist to the little finger through the Guyon canal. This syndrome commonly affects cyclists whose hands tend to get pressed against the handle bars resulting in ulnar nerve compression.
- Compression of the ulnar nerve
- Overuse of the hand
- The tissues near the ulnar nerve become swollen or thickened
- Injury to the elbow, hand or wrist
- Fractures or trauma
- Development of a ganglion (hard bump) on a tendon which can pressurize the ulnar nerve
- Nerve entrapment near the elbow or wrist joint
- Presence of cysts/Arthritis or bone spurs near the elbow joint
- Repetitive flexing or bending movement of the elbow
- Leaning on the elbow for long duration may pressurize this nerve
- Previous dislocations may result in nerve entrapment
- Pain in the little finger or middle finger or both
- Feeling of needle pricks in the finger
- Numbness, weakness or tingling sensation
- Loss of motor function of the hand muscles
- Loss of gripping capacity of the hand
- Intrinsic muscle wasting may occur in some cases
- A detailed physical examination by the orthopedic doctor which would include a variety of physical tests to assess the range of motion of the hand/wrist/elbow
- Analysis of the patient’s medical history
- Conducting EMG (electromyography) to check nerve transmissions in the hand
- X-rays can help detect bone spurs, Arthritis or displacements
- Providing adequate rest to the affected hand and finger. The elbow should be kept straight most of the time
- Application of ice packs at regular intervals
- Use of splint, particularly at night, to provide support to the finger/hand or the elbow
- Prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs or pain killers
- Physical therapy can help restore muscle strength and functioning
- Surgical treatment to relieve pressure on the ulnar nerve
- Use of specific gloves to prevent pressure on the nerve
The orthopedic surgeons at OrthoTexas provide effective treatment for Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome. To schedule an appointment, you can call at (214) 618-5502 or visit 5757 Warren Pkwy, Frisco, TX 75034.